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ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH CONCERNS AND TOXIC CHEMICALS WHERE YOU LIVE, WORK, AND PLAY

Acetone

What is it?

Acetone is a clear, highly flammable liquid. It occurs naturally in plants, trees, volcanic gases, and forest fires. It is also found in vehicle exhaust, tobacco smoke, and landfill sites.

Acetone is used as a solvent to dissolve other substances such as paint and varnish. It is used to make other chemicals, plastics, and consumer products.

See also: Construction Hair and Nail Salons Factories Homes Asthma and other Lung Diseases

Where is Acetone found?

  • Consumer products - fingernail polish remover, paint remover, cleaning products, and rubber cement
  • Air - vehicle exhaust, tobacco smoke, and landfill emissions
  • Natural environment - occurs naturally in plants, trees, volcanic gases, and forest fires

How can I be exposed to Acetone?

Acetone commonly enter(s) the body through:

Eating
Ingestion (swallowing)
  • Drinking water or eating food that contains acetone
Inhalation
Inhalation (breathing)
  • Smoking cigarettes or breathing secondhand cigarette smoke; using paint remover or nail polish remover in poorly ventilated spaces
Touching
Skin contact
  • Touching liquid acetone or products that contain acetone, such as nail polish remover

What happens when I am exposed to Acetone?

Short-term:
Breathing moderate-to-high levels of acetone for short periods of time can cause:

  • Nose, throat, lung, and eye irritation
  • Headaches and fatigue
  • Light-headedness and dizziness
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Confusion
  • Increased pulse rate
  • Effects on blood
  • Unconsciousness and possibly coma
  • Shortening of the menstrual cycle in women

Swallowing very high levels of acetone can result in:

  • Unconsciousness
  • Damage to the skin in the mouth

Skin contact can result in: 

  • Irritation
  • Damage to the skin

Long-term:
There are very few reports of long-term human effects. Animal studies have shown:

  • Kidney, liver, and nerve damage
  • Increased birth defects
  • Lowered ability to reproduce (males only)

Who is at risk for exposure to Acetone?

  • Consumers
    • Many consumer and cleaning products contain acetone.
  • Cigarette smokers
    • Cigarette smoke and secondhand cigarette smoke contain acetone.

Reduce your risk

If you think your health has been affected by exposure to acetone, contact your health care professional. 

Always wash your hands thoroughly after handling chemicals. For poisoning emergencies or questions about possible poisons, please contact your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222.

  • Do you, or does anyone in your household, smoke cigarettes?
  • How frequently do you use nail polish remover, household cleaners, paints, or rubber cement?
  • How frequently are you exposed to vehicle exhaust or gas stations?
  • Limit your time near idling cars, trucks, or buses.
  • Use an acetone-free nail polish remover.
  • Avoid solvents and other products that contain acetone.
  • Use proper ventilation when you use acetone products.
  • If you smoke, quit. Avoid secondhand smoke.
  • Don’t let children play near gas stations or idling cars.


 

National Library of Medicine Resources and Databases
Additional Resources
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