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What is Styrene?

Styrene is a flammable liquid that is used to make polystyrene plastics, fiberglass, rubber, and latex. It occurs naturally in some fruits, vegetables, meats, nuts, and beverages.

Styrene is used to make:

  • Insulation
  • Pipes 
  • Automobile parts
  • Printing cartridges and copy machine toner
  • Food containers
  • Packaging
  • Carpet backing
  • Luggage
  • Shoes
  • Toys
  • Floor waxes and polishes

Cigarette smoke and vehicle exhaust contain styrene.

See also: Factories Homes Fuel Industry Cancer Learning and Developmental Disabilities Reproductive Health

Where is Styrene found?

  • Consumer products – cigarettes, and many packaging, household, and building products
  • Air – emissions from styrene-based products, cigarettes, vehicle exhaust, and copy machines
  • Food and water – containing styrene from naturally occurring sources or contamination

How can I be exposed to Styrene?

Styrene commonly enter(s) the body through:


Ingestion (swallowing)

  • Swallowing food or water contaminated with styrene. Styrene may leach from polystyrene containers used for food, but the levels are low.

Inhalation (breathing)

  • Smoking cigarettes, or breathing cigarette smoke, secondhand smoke, or emissions from vehicles, copy machines, or building materials

Skin contact

  • Touching products made with styrene

What happens when I am exposed to Styrene?

Exposure to styrene can cause:

  • Irritation to the eyes, skin, and nose
  • Gastrointestinal effects
  • Respiratory effects

Long-term exposure to styrene can cause:

  • Central nervous system and kidney effects
  • Headaches
  • Depression
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Hearing loss
  • Balance and concentration problems
  • Cancer

Who is at risk for exposure to Styrene?

  • Consumers
    • Some food, packaging materials, and consumer and building products contain styrene.
  • Cigarette smokers
    • Cigarette smoke and secondhand smoke contain styrene.

Reduce your risk

If you think your health has been affected by exposure to styrene, contact your health care professional. 

Always wash your hands thoroughly after handling chemicals. For poisoning emergencies or questions about possible poisons, please contact your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222.

  • Do you, or does anyone in your household, smoke tobacco products?
  • Do you eat food packaged in polystyrene containers?
  • Do you use well water?
  • Do you live near an industrial facility, hazardous waste site, landfill, or incinerator that handles styrene?
  • How frequently are you exposed to vehicle exhaust?
  • Do you live near a busy highway?
  • Do you have a home copy machine?
  • If you smoke, quit. Avoid secondhand smoke.
  • Routinely test your well water for styrene.
  • If your well water contains styrene levels above EPA’s drinking water advisory levels: 
  • Limit your time near idling cars, trucks, or buses.
  • Use a home copy machine only when needed and turn it off when finished.
  • Keep the room with the copier well ventilated.
  • Don’t let children play near gas stations, idling cars, or busy highways.
  • Keep children away from products that contain styrene.

National Library of Medicine Resources and Databases

Additional Resources

  • Styrene
    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
    Answers to questions about styrene exposure, associated adverse health effects, and links to additional resources from a federal institute that investigates the interplay between environmental exposures, human biology, genetics, and common diseases to help prevent disease and improve human health.
  • Styrene
    Environmental Protection Agency
    Factsheet with answers to frequently asked questions about styrene, including its health effects, regulations for its presence in drinking water, as well as information on how it gets into and is removed from drinking water.
  • Styrene
    Environmental Protection Agency
    Resource about styrene, including physical properties, sources of potential exposure, uses, and health hazard information.
  • Styrene. ToxFAQs
    Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
    Factsheet with answers to the most frequently asked questions about styrene exposure and its effect on human health developed by a federal public health agency that protects communities from harmful health effects related to exposure to natural and man-made hazardous substances.
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